TDE is powerful, light, compact and has only one moving part. It consists of a case, combustion chambers equipped with nozzles, which are a rotor that is fixed to the power take-off shaft in the bearings. The supply system of the working components to the combustion chambers and the ignition system of the working mixture are carried out from the lateral face through the technological holes in the antifriction disk, which seals the combustion chamber. Arcuate blades are fixed on the rotor and stator. The TDE is designed so that the working components themselves complement the motor design. Thus the combustion chambers are supplied with water, that greases the anti-friction disc, and serves as a stop clack during the inflammation of the working mixture. After the working mixture detonation, water is transformed into the vapour, that hits the stator and the rotor blades when leaving the nozzle.
|CHARACTERISTICS||exhaust and draft units||ICE|
|Fuel components number||3||1|
|Harmful emissions into the atmosphere||missing||high|
|Fuel compression when inflammation||missing||applied|
|Number of parts||little||large|
|Usage of heat produced||90%||20%|
|Usage of other oxidizing agents||yes||no|
|Operation in air-free space||yes||no|
TDE operation description
TDE work animation
At the beginning of the turbine work, rotor with a power take-off shaft, starter, is given a rotational motion.
Water is supplied into the crescent-shaped combustion chambers; it immediately moves to the outlet holes of the combustion chambers in consequence of centrifugal force.
TDM in section with crescent-shaped combustion chambers and outlet for exhaust steam-gas mixture
Simultaneously with the water supply to the other two injectors, through the technical holes in the antifriction disc, which seals the combustion chamber, O&H are given, which in turn move to the combustion chamber.
Sealing between the combustion chambers is provided by the anti-friction disc.
Using the igniter, in the combustion chambers the detonation of a O&H mixture is initiated in rotation.
The igniter of a detonation O&H mixture
High pressure with temperature and vapour is formed as a result of O&H detonation, which in return partially dissociates with release of additional energy under the influence of high temperature and pressure.
The moment of O&H detonation and the exit of the vapour-gas mixture with water from the combustion chambers to the blades on the stator and rotor
The steam-gas mixture heated under high pressure comes from the exhaust holes of the combustion chambers to the stator blades, while the rotor with the power take-off shaft receives a twisting moment and begins to rotate performing useful work. The waste gas-steam mixture with water further comes out through the outlet to the radiator where the steam condenses into water, the water is filtered and cooling the bearing unit is again fed into the water nozzles.
Fuel detonation combustion
Fuel detonation combustion
It is known that detonation during working mixture combustion in internal combustion engines is not allowed, since it destroys the engine, but the amount of fuel during detonation gives many times more energy.
Released energy comparison during normal fuel combustion and detonation:
- Normal combustion-the combustion front has a speed of 20-40 m/s; the temperature of the combustion gases is 2500 degrees Celsius
- Explosive (detonation) combustion – speed is about 2000 m/s; the temperature of the gases in the detonation - 4000 degrees Celsius
To a greater extent the transformation process of fuel chemical bonds into heat and pressure determines the engine`s efficiency, but in order to get the conditions for a detonation, the corresponding motor design is required. The overall efficiency of the best gasoline engines does not exceed 25–30%, and the efficiency of the best diesel engines in their most economical large dimensions for almost 100 years cannot exceed 40–45%. The efficiency of small diesel engines is 10% lower.
In the TDE proposed the efficiency makes 90%. In TDE, as well as in gas turbines, the power will be 6 kW per 1 kg of weight. For example, a TDE with a capacity of 50 kW (almost 200 cu cm) will consume 1 liter of fuel per 100 km.
In all engines currently in operation (excluding rocket engines) the oxidizer is the air with relatively free oxygen in the composition. Since the share of oxygen in the air is only 20%, the combustion chambers have to supply a gas mixture that interferes with all the processes in the engine, as well as poisons the environment after mining.
The best fuel-oxidizing mixture is O&H, that is now used only in rocket engines and in the Turbo Detonation Engine proposed by our team, but in the TDE O&H is used much more efficiently.
Energy storage of the sun and wind produce
TDE solves a very important problem of energy storage and accumulation produced by the sun and wind as well as provides an alternative to batteries using a different approach to energy storage. Green energy can be used to electrolyze water, resulting in the formation of oxygen and hydrogen (O&H), which will then be stored compressed in cylinders. Although the electrolysis process is quite energy-intensive, it is believed the efficiency of electrolysis to be about 50%, but this coefficient is calculated by the method of subsequent heat production in the normal combustion of hydrogen in oxygen.
When using O&H in the TDE, these calculations acquire other values, since these components in the TDE detonate with the heat generation to increase twice, and the pressure – 100 times. Accordingly, these indicators show the actual efficiency, but only in the case of O&H to be used in the TDE.
The process of energy storage is of the high importance as well. It is obvious that in summer the production of solar energy is many times more than in winter, and energy is used more in winter. Batteries can only store energy for a short time and cannot store it indefinitely. If the generated energy of the sun and wind is used for electrolysis or rectification, O&H can be infinitely stored, stored and transported. In the future, O&H will be used in TDE anytime, as the result, mechanical, electrical and thermal energy in the quantities needed will be obtained.
In addition, the amount of energy per one measure of weight in the oxygen – hydrogen state is well above higher than the energy capacity stored for the same measure of weight in the accumulators, and the energy output while TDE works is several times greater as when diesel engines to operate. This in turn significantly increases its weight carrying capacity and range of flights of fly vehicles which the TDM will be used on.
Safety engineering of containers with oxygen and hydrogen use on any vehicles has been worked out for a long time and does not pose a threat more than for the containers with natural gas.